Albert Einstein, A South Was born in the city of Ulm in Germany. Small an electrochemical factory, who is the owner of his father it was not a successful business man. His mother’s world music, especially Beethoven’s Piano his passion was to steal the pieces. Family Were of Jewish origin, but away from religious bigotry, open-minded, rich in cultural activities it was in life. However, the child first years the development was ominous. Especially the speech delay the family was too alarming.
Albert, she kept to herself; and between the children to join, didn’t like to play games. School is boring, by heart based training couldn’t bear to discipline. “Gimnazjum”last middle school education, unhappy and was unsuccessful. Engineer if not for his uncle’s special interest, perhaps had completely ripped off from learning. Uncle, nephew, and algebra endeared and geometry. Especially geometry Albert a tour enchanted.
Einstein, years later, his debt to his uncle tell she tells: “two important that happened in my childhood I’ll never forget the event. I was five years old when my uncle’s the gift that I found in the compass of a mystery; the other twelve Euclidean geometry that I met when I was years old. This is not a geometry in the magic of his youth theoretical science is a bright ilerd anyone never could make that breakthrough should not be expected!”
Einstein higher education circumstances the power of the chest by stretching at the Technical University of Zurich. Encounters the problem of finding a job when he graduates. Side Middle School, an assistant at the University of couldn’t find a teacher. In the end a school with the help of friends at the Bern Patent Office ordinary to a job, moved; but with the real world science, inseparably; very soon spell today the period of the revolutionary creative genius with advances evidence. Annale der Physik journal in 1905 each of the three studies that were released, physics can be considered a turning point in history of nature.
One of them, now “the photoelectric effect”we call an event was related to. Newton, light a flow of particles, some scientists wave the motion was described as. Light actually two theories to explain the behavior with each other had the superiority; however, Newton’s particle name the theory was to provide a kind of weight.
However, 19. at the beginning of the century, the young starting, and then Fresnel Faraday and Maxwell’s work reinforced with wave experiments the theory provided a significant advantage. Einstein photoelectric study of this development a way to reverse not only Planck’s In 1900, when quantum theory verifies that it is in a stunning format.
The second study known as “Brown, Devin.” called and explained the incident. 1850s British botanists pollen with a microscope Robert brown while reviewing, the random particles in the water leaps in motion had observed. However, this observation in 1905. until uncomment remains.
Einstein that still persists the explanation is quite simple: extremely lightweight sudden kimilti of pollen in the water it consisted of molecules with the shock. Though the concept of the molecule was not new; however, the most powerful too small to be seen even under a microscope for the first time the presence of molecules with this description that has been proven.
At the beginning of our century, Ernst Mach, such as some distinguished physicists even in the absence of observational evidence try to avoid atomic theory of the grounds is known. So, this negative attitude kinetic theory of gases, the founder of the boltzman went so far as to make me want to kill myself. Einstein’s statement, this attitude of giving last the physics fell into a congestion relieves.
1905 opens a new horizon to the world of Science third, and most important work, Special Relativity (Director’s cut The theory of relativity. In this theory, Einstein a curiosity that manifests itself at a young age based. More than fourteen years old when he was Einstein “If I were riding on a beam of light, the world to me how would it look?” he asked.
19. at the end of the century relating to the speed of light Michaelson-Morley experiment, this curiosity deepens revealed the problem: audio and other wave events, on the contrary, the speed of light reference the relative lack of system! At 100 miles per hour later a locomotive, between the two stations whistle suppose. Sound front and rear stations with different speeds will reach we know: the normal than the speed of sound in the front of the station more than 100 km per hour, the station at the back reaches a speed slower than 100 km per hour. However, the people on the train for the speed of sound in there is a change; the normal to the front and rear ends at the same time the speed reaches. Of the observer the speed of sound the speed is relative to.
As for the light, the Michelson Morley experiment light showed that he treated that way. Light source the movements of the observer gorecel regardless, a change in the speed of light observation. This was an unexpected result; because of the sound spread through the air, the light also “captive” in a mysterious environment called spread through the movement of the observer and was believed to have been connected. Captive observable it wasn’t an object; but is a concept that without optical phenomena could explain how? Moreover, Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory was based on the assumption of a captive environment.
Einstein his solution, experimental results includes two water reflecting the fundamental principles.
1) to nonaccelerated moving all the laws of nature is the same for both systems;
2) The speed of light, according to the source, on the move whether or not it is the same for every observer.
Forming the premise of the special theory of relativity these two basic principles are sufficiently understood only It is not possible to get a grasp of the Einstein revolution. Theory all propositions that are included in these precursors logical consequences are. In fact, experimental which of these two policies caused by theoretical revolution, at first glance surprising it may seem. But when looking at the results his surprise a great admiration letting go.
One of the conclusions, relative to an observer the lengths in the direction of movement of objects shortened ondeyis the increase of the mass. For example, a ball close to the speed of light (close because according to the theory of the speed of light to catch up with and not to exceed) into space at a speed of we assume threw: motion outside yassilasirk like a top tray for the observer, the mass is greatly increased. The speed dropped ball, and the mass returns to previous form.
According to the theory the speed of light the speed of an object that accesses volume zero, its mass becomes infinite. However, it a thing is not considered, since no object can’t be expected to move at the speed of light. Another words, because it means resistance to the mass action, the movement of the mass destruction of sonsuzlasmas it means that.
Less surprising as a result of non-time relativity. For example, two fully adjustable to each other a very fast rocket into space from the hours imagine that you are sent. The hours of this watch in place it will be seen that is slower than. Rocket approximately 260,000 miles an hour per second, place the minute hand of the clock in return for two full but when the minute hand of the clock on the rocket make a full turn. However, in the rocket to the observer, such a slowdown comes it is not; the clock is working at normal speed. What however, this person himself when he returned to the world older meet her twin brother you will find.
These results, which in theory mathematically it was later experimentally confirmed.
Perhaps the most important theory (atomic bomb because of the most well-known) of a substance, and the equivalence of the equation for energy is:
E=mc2(In the equation E energy, m mass, c the speed of light it has been used).
Initially, the importance of this relationship is enough failed to comprehend. Contains Einstein’s equations meets the challenges of publishing the article we do know that. However, a large mass of small energy reveals that is to say, the equation the stars (the sun) and how light to describe was produced.
Our understanding of the universe in terms of some theory the results has been. Among these, the most important, undoubtedly, the concepts of space and time combines four-dimensional space the concept of time.
Special theory of relativity uniform linear (nonaccelerated) moving to the system was limited. Einstein In 1915 his theory of general relativity work accelerating or decelerating relative to each other (i.e. moving through an accelerated is included. So, the first theory, the scope of the second theory is a special case of the wider we can all count.
Special Relativity, Newton’s mechanical laws had changed. General relativity further gradually, the “graviton” concept to new and different a content expression. In classical mechanics gravitational attraction between objects with mass it was perceived as strength. Accordingly, for example, a the thing that keeps orbiting the planet, the more mass the gravity of the sun was great.
However, according to the theory of general relativity, planets the thing that the sun’s gravity holds it in orbit not in orbit of the space sector Under the influence of the mass of the sun curved structure. In the structure of such a space, objects otherwise the movement does not have a physical facility. Also the general theory with gravitational inertia policy “of the gravitational field under the name of” single concept combined in.
At this point, Einstein, Maxwell the “electromagnetic field” inspired by the concept of it can be said. Indeed, a well-known historian of Science I. B. Cohen in memory confirms: “The death two weeks ago, Einstein visit I went to. The Secretary took me to his study. Two walls of floor-to-ceiling library. A wall large windows looked out onto the garden; in the other, hung two tables: electromagnetic theory founders Faraday with Maxwellportraits!
All of the logical theory of general relativity competence, despite the immediate adoption since it was not even easy to understand. Eddington, “in theory, only three people understand what it says that being said, Is it true?” he asked, the famous astrophysicist pauses for a moment, and then “third I thought who it was,” he says.
For a time, contrary to the general theory of the special theory, in physics, the solution to any problem if desired was not the product of a directed search. Then, yet observational evidence confirming a theory he was gone; moreover, technological 1915 checked for possibilities of the theory of experimental it wasn’t enough. Theory only happens to someone elveriyo was checked; but in the current war conditions that it was difficult.
Einstein’s theory was so sure, Polls will emerge in the experimental negative the fallacy of the theory of any consequence for did not hesitate to declare that it will consider sufficient.
Ondeyi was checked to satisfy the factual: theory if it’s true, from the gravitational field of the sun last a beam of light, warp. This the effect allow you to determine in the light of day not waiting for the eclipse of the sun we have no choice.
The Sun In May 1919 Astronomers hold to be the most suitable in terms of observation Could it be the prince in the island of, West Africa they were reported. Under the leadership of eddington observation and scientists performs happens to measurements, confirmed that there was. The Result Is British Announced by the Royal Academy of Science disclosed are fascinated by a World Tour not scientific; Einstein, newton-level glory icon turns.
Then the theory with further observations has been confirmed. One of them explained in an event of classical mechanics is inadequate (Pitch shift of the planet mercury), another one, the sun (and other stars), atoms due to the decrease in the frequency of the light spread spectral lines the Red end of the spectrum correct drift is related to this event.
Special theory of relativityas such, general relativity it’s interesting that at first glance appear contradictory to the theory the results are. For example, according to the theory, the universe in terms of magnitude is finite but is infinite. Gene the theory of the universe is either growing or increasingly includes that is growing smaller (Indeed stars clusters on the observations that the universe is expanding showed that).
Einstein was not satisfied with this theory; life a more comprehensive theory in the last thirty years in an effort to create spent. There is in the universe explain things under a single policy, the root of mankind descending in a literal classical age is the quest. All the presence in the water of Thales, Pythagoras by reducing the number he tried to explain.
In the modern era Oersted, Faraday, and Maxwell identification of electric and magnetic forces we see that with the way they are. Einstein devoted to lifelong dream was this: all of nature forces (gravitation, electricity, magnetism, etc.) “the Unified field” is called a basic principle of to connect. Think about this it cannot be said that maybe; but Einstein, modern physics is dominant, the flow staying outside, at the expense of hope never gives up. The causal orderliness of the universe a it was kind of a religious belief. “My option is, if nature I can imagine a universe that is not connected to the laws maybe; but the laws of nature are statistical never I can’t join the opinion. God’s work by throwing DICE you won’t see!” was saying.
Quantum mechanics is inadequate, and the temporary sayan our age (or perhaps of all ages) greatest science genius, in its own way “alone,” he was a passenger; childhood-specific pure and simple curiosity, the universe deeply amazed at the enthusiasm and inexhaustible a passenger later!
at the age of twelve I met the other Euclid geometry. In his youth the magic of this geometry a person who keeps, in the future, theoretical a brilliant breakthrough in science that you can make any should not be expected!” explained with words.