Bowel cancer (colon cancer)?
Which is the last part of the digestive system colon cancer the large intestine (colon) cancer. The vast majority of cases of colon cancer called adenomatous polyps are small, non-cancerous (benign) cell in the form of clusters begins. Some of these polyps can develop into colon cancer over time.
They may be small polyps, though they may be few symptoms and why. For this reason, doctors cancer screening tests to help prevent colon cancer by identifying and removing polyps before they turn into recommend that be done regularly.
Bowel cancer (colon cancer), what are symptoms of?
Signs and symptoms of colon cancer include the following:
- In bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation changes in stool consistency or lasting change for more than four weeks
- Rectal bleeding or blood in the stool
- Cramping, gas, abdominal discomfort or pain, such as persistent
- The feeling cannot be completely emptied the bowel
- Weakness or fatigue
- Unexplained weight loss
In the early stages of the disease with no symptoms many people with colon cancer don’t live. Depending on your location and the size of the cancer in the large intestine when symptoms occur, symptoms likely will differ.
When should I see the doctor?
Early colorectal cancer symptoms such as blood in the stool or changes in bowel habits ongoing, please don’t hesitate to set an appointment with your doctor if you notice any of.
Bowel cancer screening talk to your doctor when you should start. Guides usually recommends that you should begin colon cancer at the age of fifty. Your doctor if you have other risk factors such as family history of disease, may recommend earlier or more frequent screening.
Bowel cancer (colon cancer) what are the causes?
In most cases, specific factors that lead to colon cancer. Doctors the healthy cells in the large intestine of genetic copy in the DNA that occurred when an error occurs in the colon cancer they know.
Healthy cells grow and maintain normal function of the body in a specific order to break up. However, a cell becomes cancerous when a cell’s DNA damage, these cells continue to multiply even when it is not needed in the new cell. As you accumulate these cells, called a tumor form.
Cancerous cells invade normal tissues near and within the harm they can grow. In addition, the cancerous cells go to other parts of the body and can create deposits (metastases).
Bowel cancer (colon cancer) what are the risk factors?
Inherited gene mutations that increase the risk of bowel cancer can be transferred within a family, but these inherited genes are connected with only a small portion of colon cancers. They do not make cancer inevitable, but the individual’s inherited gene mutations can increase your risk of cancer significantly.
The most common types of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes include:
- Familial hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer(hnpcc). HNPCC also known as Lynch syndrome, increases the risk of colon cancer and other cancers. Individuals in HNPCC tend to develop bowel cancer before the age of fifty.
- Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). FAP, the growth of thousands of polyps lining the inner surface of the colon and rectum is a rare disease that leads to. Untreated FAP patients before the age of forty the risk of developing bowel cancer is greatly increased.
FAP, HNPCC can be detected with genetic testing in colon cancer and other more rare syndromes kalirsal. If you are concerned your family history of colon cancer in your family anticipate and predict the story to find out whether the risk of these ailments, talk to your doctor.
The relationship between diet and increased risk of colon cancer
Large numbers of people with typical Western diet studies have shown the association between increased risk of colon cancer with the type of. The typical Western diet of oils, rich in fiber foods are poor in terms of.
Typical diet of people foods that are rich in fiber and poor in terms of the type of fat the typical Western diet is very common type of areas when they moved to areas where these people are in the risk of bowel cancer is significantly increased. This underlying mechanism is not understood, but researchers have found that high-fat and low-fiber diet affect the microbial organisms that live in the large intestine that contributes to the inflammation that does not cause the risk of cancer and are investigating. This active research area, and research continues.
Bowel cancer (colon cancer), what can be done to prevent it?
Enter to colon cancer screening
People with a moderate level of risk for colon cancer at the age of fifty might want to start to scan. However, individuals with a family history of colon cancer should consider screening persons at risk, such as to begin earlier.
There are several scanning options, and each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. Talk to your doctor your options and decide together on the appropriate tests for you.
Make lifestyle changes to reduce your risk
Take steps to reduce your risk of colon cancer by making changes in your daily life. Take the following steps:
- Varied fruits, vegetables and grains we eat. Fruits, vegetables and whole grains play a role in preventing cancer, vitamins, minerals, fibers and antioxidants it contains. Choose several different fruits and vegetables so that you get the vitamins and nutrients a number.
- If you are using alcohol, use in moderation. If you use alcohol, the amount of alcohol you are drinking at least one per day for women, two drinks for men limit.
- Stop smoking. Consult your doctor for methods that will allow you to quit smoking.
- Exercise on most days of the week. Try to do moderate exercise for at least 30 minutes most days. If you have been inactive for a while, start slowly and gradually by increasing in 30 minutes and quit. Also talk to your doctor before beginning any exercise program.
- Maintain a healthy weight. If you’re a healthy weight, your body weight, a healthy diet and daily exercise with a combination of try to protect. If you need to lose weight, your doctor healthy methods that you need to get you to your destination problem. By gradually reducing the amount of calories you eat and increasing the amount of exercise to lose weight target.
Colon cancer prevention in high-risk individuals
Some drugs of pre-cancerous polyps or have been found to reduce the risk of colon cancer. However, these drugs there is not enough evidence to suggest that people with average risk of colon cancer. These options are usually for people who have a high risk of colon cancer.
For example, some polyps and findings, declining the risk of colon cancer aspirin or aspirin-like associate with the regular use of drugs. However, what dose and for how long that will be sufficient to reduce the risk of colon cancer is not clear. Gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers, including the aspirin every day there are some risks to using on a daily basis, hence your risk of colon cancer is high prevention as a strategy them unless the doctors does not recommend it.
Bowel cancer (colon cancer), how to diagnose?
Colon cancer screening
Doctor to look for signs of colon cancer in healthy people without any signs or symptoms in the early stages that undergo specific diagnostic testing is recommended. Brings a high chance of getting caught in the early stages of colon cancer. To make the scan has been shown to reduce the risk of dying due to colon cancer.
People with a moderate level of risk for colon cancer at the age of fifty might want to start to scan. However, individuals with a family history of colon cancer should consider screening individuals at high risk, such as to begin earlier.
There are several scanning options, and each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. The options in front of you, talk to your doctor and decide together the appropriate tests for you. If colonoscopy is used for screening, polyps can be taken during the process from turning into cancer.
Diagnosis of colon cancer
If it shows that it might be colon cancer signs and symptoms, your doctor may recommend one or more tests and operation:
- Use a scope to examine the inside of your large intestine. Colonoscopy the entire Colon and rectum is attached to a video camera at the end to see your long, thin, and uses a flexible hose and a monitor. Any suspicious area is selected when the doctor for examination samples of tissue (biopsies) and remove polyps from the inside of the hose in order to pass surgical instruments.
- Blood tests. No blood test can’t show whether you are for colon cancer. However, your doctor will check your kidney and liver function tests such as blood tests that may give hints about your general health status.
Of the colon your doctor also may do a blood test for a chemical that is sometimes produced by cancer analysis (carcinoembryonic antigen, or CEA). The level of CEA in your blood to be monitored over time can help determine whether your cancer is responding to treatment for your doctor and understand porn.
Bowel cancer (colon cancer) what are the stages of?
After the diagnosis of colon cancer, your doctor the spread of cancer (stage), you will want to test to determine. Staging helps determine the treatment most appropriate for you.
In the tests that are used for the purpose of staging, abdomen, pelvis and chest imaging techniques such as Computed Tomography facility. In many cases, the cancer may not be discovered until after colon cancer surgery.
Stages of colon cancer include:
- Stage I. the cancer cells that line the surface of the colon or rectum(mucous membranes) has shown through the growth, but has not spread beyond the wall of the large intestine or rectum.
- Stage II. Cancer has shown growth in the wall or along the wall of the colon or rectum but has not spread to nearby lymph nodes.
- Stage III. The cancer has invaded nearby lymph nodes, but has yet to affect other parts of the body, did not.
- Stage IV. Cancer as an example, such as your lungs or other organs, including your liver has spread to distant areas.
Bowel cancer (colon cancer), treatment for what are the options?
The type of treatment your doctor recommends will depend largely on the stage of the cancer. Three main treatment options are surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Surgical intervention for early stage colon cancer
If it is too small for your colon cancer, your doctor will be described below, minimally invasive surgery (surgery with a minimal intervention approach, may I suggest:
- Removal of polyps during a colonoscopy. Your cancer small, local, and completely within the polyp, if it is located in the early stages and fairly if your doctor during a colonoscopy, the cancer can completely remove.
- Endoscopic mucosal resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection of large colon polyps removal of a process called cells that line the inner surface or of the rectum may require removal of a small portion.
- Minimally invasive surgery. Polyps cannot be removed during a colonoscopy they can be removed with laparoscopic surgery. In this procedure, your surgeon will make a small incision in your abdominal wall at the end of the large intestine and few camera equipment that you put into your stomach by referring to a video monitor is plugged in performs the surgery. The surgeon may also take samples of the lymph nodes in the area where the cancer is located.
Invasive surgery for colon cancer
The inside of the large intestine, or colon cancer if your colon is grown throughout, your surgeon may I suggest the following:
- Partial (partial) colectomy. In this procedure, the surgeon removes the cancerous part of your colon cancer of the colon in conjunction with the Department of the edges on each side of the normal tissue extracts. Often, the surgeon will reconnect the healthy parts of the rectum or the large intestine to each other. This process is often a minimally invasive approach (laparoscopy) can be performed.
- Waste expelled from your body where it can be performed to create a path. The healthy parts of the colon or rectum when it is not possible, you may need to reassemble your osmaniye. This process of creating an opening in the abdominal wall, the remaining section of the bowel into the void that is created by the removal of the feces in a bag includes a tight fitting.
Sometimes, only temporary Ostomy after your surgery in the large intestine or rectum for the purpose and saves time for you to heal. However, in some cases, the colostomy may be permanent.
- Removal of lymph nodes. Colon surgery often nearby lymph nodes are removed and examined in terms of cancer.
Surgery in advanced stage cancer
If your cancer is more advanced or your overall health if your condition is very bad, your surgeon will open your bowel obstruction or other problems in order to improve the symptoms experienced may recommend surgery to relieve. The aim of this surgery will cure the cancer, but not for the relief of signs and symptoms such as bleeding and pain.
Cancer has spread to the liver only, but in special cases that are in overall good health, your doctor may recommend surgery for the removal of the cancerous lesion from the liver. This chemotherapy may be used before and after surgery. This approach provides a chance for a long time from cancer.
Chemotherapy the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells. Chemotherapy for colon cancer usually after surgery, if cancer has spread to the lymph nodes is given. In this way, the risk of recurrence of the cancer chemotherapy and cancer-related death may help to reduce. Sometimes, chemotherapy before surgery, to shrink the cancer before surgery can be used. Pre-operative chemotherapy in rectal cancer is more common than colon cancer.
Colon cancer that spread to other areas of the body to relieve the symptoms of chemotherapy may be given.
Radiation therapy can be more easily removed during surgery to shrink a large tumor prior to surgery in cancer of the colon and rectum order or for the alleviation of the symptoms of cancer X-ray uses powerful energy sources. Radiotherapy alone or radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy for the initial treatment of rectal cancer standard treatment options are surgical intervention, then death comes.
Targeted drug therapy
Advanced stage colon cancer drugs that target the cancer cells that allows them to grow is available to people with special defects and includes the following:
- Bevacizumab (Avastin)
- Cetuximab (Erbitux)
- Panitumumab (Vectibix)
- Ramucirumab (Cyramza)
- Regorafenib (Stivarga)
- Ziv-aflibercept (Zavtra)
Targeted drugs can be given alone or in combination with chemotherapy. It is considered as an option in people with advanced stage colon cancer is mostly targeted medications.
Targeted medications result in some people while in others it is not observed in response to treatment. Researchers to identify patients most likely to benefit from targeted drugs have made progress with lately. Until more is known, doctors use this treatment targeted drugs against the decision to the high cost and limited benefits to assess carefully the risk of side effects.
Some patients with advanced colon cancer pembrolizumab (keytrud) and nivolumab (Opdivo) with antibodies has the opportunity to benefit from chemotherapy. This will give you the answer whether a colon cancer immunotherapies, tumor tissue can be determined with a specific test.
Supportive (palliative) care
Palliative care is medical care focused Private to alleviate the symptoms of pain and other serious diseases. Palliative care specialists, complementary care in order to provide a separate support in your continuing you, your family, and work in conjunction with other physicians.
When used in conjunction with all other appropriate treatments, palliative care, people with cancer themselves, they can feel better and live longer.
In palliative care doctors, nurses, and other health professionals, provided by a team of specially trained. Palliative care teams aim to increase the quality of life of people with cancer and their families. This type of care that you may receive a healing treatment, or along with other therapies, is presented.