Life is dependent on energy from the sun. The organisms that use the chemical as it flows all life forms, except for roads , high-energy organic nutrients are obtained directly or indirectly from photosynthesis. The solar energy that reaches the Earth’s surface of 1% less than 1/10 of a portion of the products of photosynthesis to be converted to total primary (first) gets the name of the production. Plants, the total production is 15-20% of their respiration are used. The rest is used to make new textures, and net primary production is known as. Per year approximately 6X1020 gr. kal energy as predicted, the total biosphere net primary production, heterotrophic forms the basis for the energy of life in the world.
Animals fungi protists bacteria and heterotrophic organisms, which are almost all of the energy they need ototrophic and most of the organisms, other organisms, called detritus or other ototrof who heterotrof the rotten parts (waste products, or dead tissues) by eating.
In a community of energy that can be moved an array of organisms, the food chain is called in the usual way. In most real communities, there are many complex food chains together as in the past. These together they are the foundation of a community’s food web. However, a food chain or food regardless of how complex of a network can be how it is always that you have certain basic features. Every food chain or food web for the community ototrophic the producer organisms (usually plants Yesil) at each level of each food web begins with and or chain, usually scavenger organisms such as bacteria and fungi (decomposer) called parser ends with. Also centipedes, earthworms, termites, flies, lobsters, mussels and some fish feed on detritus and partially release. All heterotrof like scavengers, they release CO2 and NH3 which can be reused by manufacturers such as simple substances. The connections between the parser and shows the diversity of manufacturers. Directly to manufacturers or producers may be processed by the parser after the death of the primary consumers which are herbivores, they can be eaten by; terrestrial plant production is about 10% is consumed in this way. In contrast, herbivore, or directly exposed to the impact of the parser may or may not be carnivores, parasites, carrion eaters, and are eaten by secondary consumers like.
Ecology scientists, community, the steps of feeding in the food chain, trophic levels denote. Thus, all manufacturers together the first traffic level; primary consumers (herbivores) at the second trophic level; herbivore-eating carnivores form the third level, traffic. A community of species at each trophic level to another vary.
Apart from that, many types of different food, such as omnivores fed a single food within a network the level of traffic the level of traffic that might be functional in two or more categories are not immutable themselves. For example, seeds, herbivorous insects, carnivorous insects, and a breed that eats tit, second, third, and fourth works on the traffic levels. In spite of this complexity, the concept of trophic levels, the community retains the value in the analysis.
At each successive trophic level, there is loss of energy from the system. This loss, in part, the biomass of the consumer population is the lack of capable of obtaining more energy from a piece of; partly, omissions assimilasyon capabilities (e.g., ruminants and termites except for most of the herbivores can’t metabolize the cellulose wall of plant cells); partly in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics, respiratory, and as a result in the form of heat due to the loss of energy (usually heat energy loss in each Energy Transfer that can be used as required. As a result, only a part of the energy at one trophic level, can be transferred to other levels. The fraction of the transmitted energy, the most effective animals to consume other animals ektotermik 35% with a high rate of the plants, and some small endothermic animals that fed on 0.1% to the bottom of a falling rate varies between. Backwards, almost all of the remaining energy, the parser, or is lost as heat. Therefore, less of a community the herbivores feeding on plants; a herbivore carnivore shows a less than efficiency, and so on. Thus, the distribution of productivity within a community, at the base of the first trophic level (producers) at the top of the latest consumer can be represented by a pyramid where the level of traffic. From a traffic efficiency quickly drops to the next level, because in a food chain are more rare than four or five digits; the fifth digit, the first digit in the efficiency of 0.0001% is more than rarely, and a top nutrient density of a new stage of support available is very low.
The pyramid of productivity (also called the pyramid of energy flow) is a feature of all ecosystems. Many other features of ecosystems, energy flow in the system is associated with, since the pyramid may be reduced in accordance with the model; however, results may deviate from the model, because secondary productivity of the distribution pyramid. The pyramid of biomass is an example. In general, each successive traffic steps means that less biomass can be supported at each level of energy reduction. Therefore, the total mass of carnivores in a particular community is always less than the total mass of herbivores. However, traffic between the different steps of a community type, body size, growth rates and life lengths of the model pyramid, the biomass is important in determining whether those communities will cover. For example, manufacturers with high metabolic and reproductive rates, small algae and some aquatic communities, at a certain time, beyoba consumers, manufacturers can be much more; the total mass of all the algae that live but a year of living in that year will be larger than the total consumer mass.
The mutual relations between organisms at different traffic levels, it can have some effect on the size of the organism. Therefore, carnivores than herbivores usually are bigger. Secondary carnivores, feed on primary carnivores are larger than they usually where.
In this case, the total biomass, consecutive traffic levels tend to decrease, so if the size of individuals increases at each level if it should decrease the number of individuals (too many parsers are excluded from this).As a result, some communities n herbivores, plants from herbivores and carnivorous individuals that number less than the pyramids show. As we mentioned earlier, killer whales, such as wolves, lions or top predators (predators at the top of the food chain) they can not hunt over both of their types. they make a very wide distribution, and because these animals are very few; and very little energy to find and hunt their own breeds.
However, many community does not have a pyramid of numbers. For example, biomass is less, because a much greater number of consumer the insect is close to the plant manufacturer. Because plant-eating insects, feed on plants are usually much smaller; for example, the single large spring fed by thousands of eating a leaf on a tree-boring caterpillars and insects can be found. Including parasites in the food chain, because they are generally smaller and more numerous the parasites of the hosts, population—magnitude relationship is reversed.
When considering the inability to transfer energy from a level to another traffic our remote ancestors kalitlanan both animal and vegetable diet, instead of eating vegetables entirely, if we stopped being omnivorous world seems to accommodate more people.
However, this common belief there are some shortcomings. First, for example, large areas of the world —Argentina, Australia, Africa, South America, Western and Western— unfit for human consumption, however, the large herbivores that can feed this kind of habitat plants which are adapted to low quality pasture. Another problem, related to human nutritional requirements, whether vegetarian diet is animal protein daily that usually requires some additional. In Western societies most individuals consume much more animal protein than is necessary to sustain their lives, in fact, cattle meat for a few weeks before slaughter to enhance the taste of high-quality feed with seed. In the United States, total grain production (mostly corn), 30% cattle and the nutrition of chickens is divided into. Cattle is fed only by beslense was a significant portion of the world that can be done in the area of Agriculture, milk production who want to provide food for their dairy cattle for the continuation of high quality weed, it would be necessary . Another questionable part of cattle, animal farms along with that they are the main source of methane that might contribute to global warming.
Malthus’s other dilemma is a persistent problem in developing countries and a significant reduction in the birth rate, without any increase in World Food Production, After all, can serve to increase the number of people that will be hungry again. Any increase in the top of the pyramid; however, at lower traffic levels, a proportionally larger increase can be supported.