What is pancreatic cancer?
Pancreatic cancerin the abdomen, extending horizontally at the bottom rear of the stomach is an organ which begins in the tissues of the pancreas. Your pancreas secretes enzymes that help digestion and hormones that help to regulate your blood sugar.
Pancreatic cancer typically spreads to nearby organs. Rarely noticed in the early stages. Pancreatic cyst or pancreatic cancer in people with a history of the family, but some tests may help in early detection of the problem. A symptom of pancreatic cancer, especially weight loss, jaundice or upper abdominal pain that occurs with diabetes is that shot in the back.
Treatment; surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these may include.
What are the symptoms of pancreatic cancer?
Pancreatic cancer signs and symptoms of the disease often before they reach the advanced levels should not occur. These are:
- The pain that shot in the back in the abdominal area, upper
- Loss of appetite or involuntary weight loss
- New onset diabetes
- Blood clots
- Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice).
When should I see the doctor?
If if you are experiencing unexplained weight loss or persistent fatigue, abdominal pain, jaundice, or other signs and symptoms, contact your doctor if you experience that bothers you. Many conditions can cause these symptoms, so your doctor can control this with a variety of conditions in pancreatic cancer.
What are the causes of pancreatic cancer?
In many cases, the cause of pancreatic cancer is not clear. Doctors factors that increase the risk of developing the disease (such as smoking) has been defined.
Understand the pancreas
Your pancreas 6 inches (15 cm) in length and is similar to a pear lying sideways. Including insulin, and secretes hormones that help your body to process the sugar in the foods you eat. Also, your body produces digestive juices that help to digest food.
What causes pancreatic cancer?
Pancreatic cancer the pancreas occurs as a result of the development of mutations in the DNA of your cells. These mutations continue to live after the death of the normal cells and leads to uncontrolled growth of cells. The accumulated cells can create a tumor. Untreated pancreatic cancer spread to nearby organs and blood vessels.
Many pancreatic cancer begins in the cells that line the pancreatic ducts. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma or pancreatic exocrine cancer this type of cancer is referred to as. Rarely, cancer, hormone-producing cells in the pancreas or neuroendocrine cells occur. The types of this cancer, an islet cell tumor, pancreatic endocrine cancer, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are called.
What are the risk factors for pancreatic cancer?
Factors that increase the risk of pancreatic cancer include the following:
- Chronic inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
- Brca2 gene mutations in Lynch syndrome families and familial atypical mole-malignant melanoma syndrome (FAMM) is a genetic syndrome that may increase the risk of cancer, including a history of
- The family history of pancreatic cancer
- Advanced age (most people diagnosed after the age of 65)
A large study, smoking, long-term diabetes and poor diet in the presence of the combination of any one of these factors further increases the risk of pancreatic cancer.
What are the complications of pancreatic cancer?
Kolanjiopankreatografi endoscopic retrograde (ERCP):
With the progression of pancreatic cancer, the following complications may occur:
- Weight loss. A number of factors can lead to weight loss in patients with pancreatic cancer. Cancer can cause weight loss on its own. Nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment or tumor pressing on your stomach can make it difficult to eat. Or, because enough is generated from the digestive fluid your pancreas, your body in processing nutrients from food can be a challenge.Your doctor may recommend pancreatic enzyme supplements for digestion help.As long as you can enjoyable and comfortable as much as possible by passing the cooking time and adding extra calories to maintain your body weight try.
- Jaundice. Pancreatic cancer is blocking the bile ducts of the liver may lead to jaundice. Marks yellowing of the eyes and skin, dark urine and pale stools in the lobby. Abdominal pain without jaundice usually occurs.Your doctor, a plastic or metal tube (stent) is placed into the bile duct and may recommend that to be kept open. This kolanjiopankreatografi endoscopic retrograde (ERCP) is implemented as a process called. During ERCP, an endoscope down your throat, through your stomach to the upper part of the small intestine is sent.Then, the pancreas and biliary tract advanced through the endoscope into small, hollow tube (catheter) through a dye is injected. Finally, the channels of images are taken.
- Pain. A growing tumor can press on the nerves in the abdomen which can become severe and this may cause pain. Pain medications can help you feel better. Radiation therapy may help stop tumor growth temporarily to relax.In severe cases, your doctor to limit alcohol in order to control your abdominal pain may suggest a process that involves being injected with (celiac plexus block). This process prevents the nerves from sending pain signals to your brain.
- Bowel obstruction. The first part of the small intestine (duodenum – duodenum) pancreatic cancer is growing or pressing here, prevents the passage of digested food from the stomach into the intestine.Your small intestine your doctor to keep your colon clear of a tube (stent) may recommend the placement of. Or, to bind to the intestine is not blocked by the lower region of gastric cancer surgery may be necessary.
What can be done to prevent pancreatic cancer?
If you apply the following suggestions, you can reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer:
- Stop smoking. If you smoke, try to stop. Your doctor, support groups, nicotine replacement therapy, including medications and talk about strategies that can help you quit. If you do not smoke, don’t start.
- Maintain a healthy body weight. If you’re a healthy weight, try to maintain your body weight. If you need to lose weight slow, steady weight loss goal put 1-2 pounds per week (0.5 – 1 kg). Daily exercise to help you to lose weight small portions of vegetables, fruits and whole grains rich diet combine with.
- Choose a healthy diet. Colorful fruits, vegetables and whole grains may help reduce the risk of cancer a diet that is full of.
If your family has a history of pancreatic cancer, consider meeting with a genetic Counselor. Your Advisor review your family history and the risk of other cancers or with cancer of the pancreas in order to understand you can decide if genetic testing is going to be useful.
What are the methods of diagnosis of pancreatic cancer?
If your doctor suspects pancreatic cancer, you may do one or more of the following tests:
- Imaging tests that creates a picture of your internal organs. These tests can help your doctor to view your internal organs, including the pancreas helps. The methods that are used in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and occasionally Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans contains.
- Ultrasound and fluoroscopy can be used to create images of your pancreas. Endoscopic ultrasound (eus) uses an ultrasound device to obtain images of your pancreas from inside the abdomen. The device is a thin, flexible tube (endoscope) is inserted into and is placed in the esophagus through your stomach to get the images.
- A tissue sample for testing (biopsy). Biopsy a small tissue sample is removed and the process of examining it under a microscope. By passing through your skin with a needle into your doctor may take a tissue sample from pancreas the pancreas (fine needle aspiration). Or, you may take a sample by directing special instruments during EUS in the pancreas.
- A blood test. In your blood produced by your doctor pancreatic cancer cells specific proteins (tumor markers) test. Tumor marker test for pancreatic cancer CA19-9 is referred to as. However, this test is not always reliable, and CA19-9 test results to perceive how best to use it. Some doctors before treatment, during treatment and after treatment to measure your levels.
If your doctor confirms the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, the stage of the cancer (extent) attempts to determine. Your doctor, by using information from staging tests, which helps determine the stage of pancreatic cancer determines the treatment that is appropriate for you.
What are the stages of pancreatic cancer?
- Stage I. the cancer is limited to the pancreas can be surgically removed.
- Stage II. The cancer outside the pancreas, has spread to nearby tissue and organs and may spread to lymph nodes. At this stage, surgery to remove the cancer can be done.
- Stage III. The cancer outside the pancreas, has spread to large blood vessels around the pancreas and it may spread to lymph nodes. At this stage, surgery to remove the cancer may not be possible.
- Stage IV. Cancer of the liver, lungs, and abdominal organs that surrounds the line (the peritoneum) has spread to distant areas beyond the pancreas. At this stage, surgery is not an option.
The experience of your doctor diagnosed with pancreatic cancer feel free to ask. If you have any doubts, seek a second opinion.
What are the treatment options for pancreatic cancer?
The treatment of pancreatic cancer and the stage of your cancer and your personal preferences as well as your general health depends on location. For most people, the primary purpose of treatment for pancreatic cancer, if possible, is to eliminate the cancer. This is not an option when your quality of life and increase cancer growth or prevention of further damage can be focused on.
Treatment; surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these may include. To obtain the benefit of the progression and treatment of pancreatic cancer are not possible when the symptom that your doctor you feel as comfortable as possible for palliative care (palliative care) will recommend.
Implemented for people with pancreatic cancer operations include the following:
- Surgery of pancreatic head tumors. If the cancer is located in the head of the pancreas, a whipple Procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy you can consider an operation he called.The head of the pancreas whipple procedure, the first part of the small intestine (duodenum), the gallbladder and the common bile duct and to retrieve a portion of a technically difficult operation. In some cases, a portion of the stomach and nearby lymph nodes may also be removed. Your doctor to digest foods the pancreas, the remaining portions of the stomach and intestines re-combine.
- Surgeries of tumors in the body and tail of the pancreas. The left side of the pancreas (body and tail) is applied to remove the surgery is called distal pancreatectomy. Your surgeon can take your spleen.
- Surgery to remove all of the pancreas. In some people, you may need to remove the whole of the pancreas. This process is called total pancreatectomy. You can live in a relatively normal way without your pancreas, but you need a lifelong insulin supplementation and enzyme.
- Surgery of tumors that affect the nearby blood vessels. Most people with advanced stage pancreatic cancer, the tumor if it holds nearby blood vessels whipple procedure or other pancreatic surgery are not eligible for. Only a few medical centers in the United States at selected highly qualified and experienced surgeons in the patient, the blood vessels of certain parts of removal and reconstruction will carry out these operations safely.
Each of these surgeries carries the risk of bleeding and infection. If you have difficulty in gastric emptying (the stomach of late discharge), nausea and vomiting occur in some people after surgery. Be prepared for a long recovery after any of these operations. The house will spend a few days in the hospital for a few weeks and then you will have the healing process.
Extensive research, pancreatic cancer surgery, surgery of making the most of shows that tend to result in less complications when performed by experienced surgeons very. Feel free to ask questions about the experience of pancreatic cancer your surgeon and your hospital. If you have any doubts, seek a second opinion.
Chemotherapy uses drugs to help kill cancer cells. These drugs can be injected into a vein or taken by mouth. A chemotherapy drug, or any combination thereof.
Chemotherapy may be combined with radiation therapy (democracy). Democracy beyond me, although it has typically spread to nearby organs in the pancreas to distant parts of the body used to treat cancer have not progressed. This combination can be used to help shrink the tumour prior to surgery in specialized medical centers. Sometimes being able to experience a relapse of pancreatic cancer after surgery to reduce the risk of is used.
In people with advanced stage pancreatic cancer, chemotherapy is often used to control cancer growth and prolong survival.
Radiation therapy to destroy cancer cells X-rays and protons obtained from sources such as high-energy rays uses. Radiation therapy after cancer surgery, often in combination with chemotherapy. Surgical treatment of cancer is not possible, your doctor may recommend a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
Post by radiation therapy usually radiation to particular areas of your body, that revolves around you is given from a machine (external beam radiotherapy). Specialized medical centers, radiation therapy can be given during surgery (Intraoperative radiotherapy).
Traditionally to treat cancer, radiation therapy X-rays uses. Some medical centers that proton radiotherapy may be a treatment option for some people with advanced stage pancreatic cancer recommends.
Supportive (palliative) care
Palliative care is medical care focused Private to alleviate the symptoms of pain and other serious diseases. Palliative care specialists, in order to provide ongoing support to complement your care separate you, your family, and work in conjunction with other physicians. Palliative care, surgery, chemotherapy and aggressive treatments such as radiation therapy while receiving can be used.
Of palliative care in conjunction with other appropriate treatments – even after diagnosis – even when used on people with cancer themselves, they can feel better and live longer.
In palliative care doctors, nurses, and other health professionals, provided by a team of specially trained. These teams aim to increase the quality of life for people with cancer and their families. Palliative care, treatment of diseases care impossible, or at the end of life patient care is not the same.