What is stomach cancer?
Stomach cancer usually begins in the cells lining the stomach that produce mucus. This medicine cancer is called adenocarcinoma.
During the last few decades, in the main section of the stomach (body of the stomach region) showed a worldwide decline in cancer rates. During this time, the upper part of the stomach (food) the food pipe (esophagus) meets with End Sub in the area where the cancer has become more widespread. This section of the stomach is called the gastroesophageal junction.
What are the symptoms of stomach cancer?
Signs and symptoms of gastroesophageal junction cancer and gastric cancer include the following:
- Bloating feeling after eating
- Don’t feel full after eating a small amount
- Serious, persistent heartburn
- Severe indigestion which is always present
- Unexplained and persistent nausea
- Stomach pain
- Persistent vomiting
- Unexplained weight loss
Make an appointment with your doctor if you are experiencing signs and symptoms that concerns you. We will explore these findings and symptoms are probably the more common causes of the doctor before.
Stomach cancer what are the causes?
Usually an error in the DNA of cancer cells (mutation) occurs when begins. The rapid growth and proliferation of the cell this mutation, and causes a normal cell to survive even after the time was supposed to die. Accumulating cancer cells forms a tumor that can invade nearby structures. Then, cancer cells detach from the tumor can spread throughout the body.
Gastroesophageal junction cancer, gastrointestinal reflux disease (Gerd) and is associated with obesity and smoking less often. Stomach acid into the esophagus GERD is a condition that occurs frequently by sending them back.
Eating smoked and pickled foods rich in in the stomach with the main part of the types of stomach cancer there is a strong correlation between. Increased worldwide use of a refrigerator to preserve the nutrients of stomach cancer rates have decreased.
What are the risk factors for stomach cancer?
The main risk factors for cancer of the gastroesophageal junction, Gerd, and obesity story.
Factors that increase your risk of stomach pressure, stomach cancer include the following:
- Diet rich in salty and smoked foods-type
- In terms of the type of fruits and vegetables poor nutrition
- Called aflatoxin, the fungus ingestion of contaminated foods
- A history of stomach cancer in the family
- Helicobacter pylori infection
- Long-term stomach inflammation
- Pernicious anemia
- Stomach polyps
What can be done to prevent stomach cancer?
It is not clear what causes the gastroesophageal junction or gastric cancer, therefore, there is no way to prevent this. Gastroesophageal junction and gastric cancer by making changes in your daily life, you can take the necessary steps to reduce your risk of. For example, try the following:
- Exercise. Regular exercise has been associated with a reduced risk of stomach cancer. Your day of physical activity on most days of the week try to incorporate somehow.
- Eat more fruits and vegetables. Try to add more fruits and vegetables into your every day diet. Choose varied colored fruits and vegetables.
- Reduce the amount of salty and smoked foods you eat. Protect your stomach by limiting these foods.
- Do not smoke. If you smoke, quit. If you do not smoke, don’t start. Smoking increases the risk of many types of cancer as well as stomach cancer. Quitting smoking can be very difficult, so seek help from your doctor.
- Gastroesophageal junction cancer, or stomach cancer consult your doctor about your risk. Gastroesophageal junction cancer, or stomach cancer risk is high, talk to your doctor. Together with your doctor, you may want to consider periodic Endoscopy to look for signs of cancer of the stomach.
What are the symptoms of stomach cancer?
Tests and procedures used to diagnose cancer of the gastroesophageal junction, and stomach cancers include the following:
- Used a small camera to see inside your stomach (upper Endoscopy). A narrow tube with a tiny camera is inserted down your throat and into your stomach. Your doctor looks for signs of cancer. If any suspicious area is identified, you can buy a small piece of tissue for examination (biopsy).
- Imaging tests. Imaging tests are used to investigate stomach cancer in computed tomography (CT) and sometimes a barium X-ray radiography, called a special X-ray is situated.
The spread of stomach cancer (of the universe) is how to determine?
The stage of your stomach cancer, your doctor will help you to agree on the best treatment for you. Tests and procedures that are used to determine the stage of cancer include the following:
- Imaging tests. Between these tests, CT and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) may be involved.
- Exploratory surgery. Your cancer has spread beyond your stomach or your esophagus into the abdominal cavity your doctor to look for signs of indicating that may suggest surgery. Exploratory surgery is often carried out using laparoscopic methods. In this expression, the surgeon will make a small incision in your abdominal wall in the operating room and the few transfers images to a screen means that a special camera that will put you in the abdominal.
Depending on your situation, other staging tests may be used.
What are the stages of stomach cancer?
You ozafagu adenocarcinomas of the stomach or the phases include the following:
- Stage I. at this stage, the tumor or the lining tissue of the esophagus to the stomach is limited by the inner surface of the layers. A small number of cancer cells may have spread to nearby lymph nodes.
- Stage II. In this stage the cancer of the esophagus or the stomach wall to grow towards a deeper layer, deeper Nov spread. Cancer may have spread to more lymph nodes.
- Stage III. In this stage, the cancer may have shown growth in all layers of the esophagus or stomach and can spread to nearby structures. A common way that holds to the lymph nodes or smaller may be cancer.
- Stage IV. In this stage indicates whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.
What are the treatment options for stomach cancer?
Your treatment options for gastroesophageal junction cancer or stomach cancer, the stage of the cancer, your overall health depends on your preferences.
Gastroesophageal junction gastric cancer surgery has not spread cancer, esophageal or stomach for the removal of the tumor in the region where is located is required. The goal of surgery all of the cancer in the stomach and, if possible, is the removal of healthy tissue around the cancer. Nearby lymph nodes are usually taken.
All of the cancer and gastric cancer the goal of surgery is the removal of healthy tissue around the edges of it if possible. The available options within the following takes place:
- The removal of early stage tumors in the inner membrane of the stomach. Be limited to cells that line the inner surface of the stomach, endoscopic mucosal resection endoscope with very little of the rest can be removed using a process called cancer. The endoscope down your throat towards your stomach advanced, and on the end is a tube that contains a camera and a light source. Stomach cancer and the Doctor uses special tools to remove the edges of the surrounding skin tissue.
- The removal of a portion of the stomach (subtotal gastrectomy). Subtotal gastrectomy, the surgeon removes only the portion of the stomach affected by cancer.
- Removal of the entire stomach (total gastrectomy). A total gastrectomy involves the removal of a portion of the stomach and the surrounding tissue. Then, the esophagus to allow food to progress through the digestive system, directly connects to the small intestine.
- For the investigation of cancer of the lymph nodes removal. The surgeon will examine the abdomen to look for cancer cells in the lymph nodes.
- Aiming to alleviate the symptoms and findings operated. With the removal of a portion of the stomach advanced gastric cancer caused by a tumor growing in you may relieve the signs and symptoms of. In this case, advanced gastric cancer surgery do not heal, but you can allow yourself to feel more comfortable.
Surgery carries the risk of bleeding and infection. If all or part of your stomach is removed you may experience digestive problems.
Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells X-rays and uses a powerful energy beam such as protons. Bundles of energy, produced by a machine that moves you around lying on your desk.
As with gastroesophageal junction cancer, gastric cancer, radiation therapy, used before surgery to shrink the tumor can be removed more easily in order that you can be a tumor(neoadjuvant radiation). Radiation therapy can be used after surgery to kill any cancer cells that remain around your stomach or esophagus (neoadjuvant radiation).
Gastroesophageal junction cancer, chemotherapy, radiation and an operation that is performed at the same time), but most of before the surgery is applied.
Receive radiation therapy to your stomach, diarrhea, indigestion, nausea, and vomiting may result. Radiation therapy can cause pain during swallowing and difficulty swallowing esophageal. To avoid these side effects, until your esophagus has healed a small cut in your abdomen that is placed into the stomach through the use of a feeding tube may be recommended.
In cases of advanced cancer, radiation therapy can be used to relieve the side effects caused by a large tumor.
Chemotherapy, which uses chemicals to kill cancer cells medication. Chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells that may have spread beyond the stomach, it circulated throughout the body.
The size of the tumor so it can be retrieved more easily chemotherapy the tumor in order to help to be minimized can be given before surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy). Chemotherapy may be given to kill any cancer cells that may remain in the body after surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy). Often chemotherapy is combined with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy alone in advanced gastric cancer can be used to help ease the symptoms and findings.
The side effects of chemotherapy depend on the drug used.
The goal of treatment to specific abnormalities in the cancer cells, your immune system is attacking or directing the use of drugs to kill cancer cells (immunotherapy). Targeted drugs used to treat cancer of the stomach within the following takes place:
- Trastuzumab (you hercep) – HER2 in the cancer cells of the stomach that produces too much.
- Ramucirumab (Cyramza) – advanced gastric cancer that do not respond to other treatments.
- Imatinib (Gleevec) – called gastrointestinal stromal tumor, a rare type of stomach cancer
- Sunitinib (Student) – gastrointestinal stromal tumors
- Regorafenib (Stivarga) – gastrointestinal stromal tumors
Several targeted drugs are being investigated for the treatment of cancer of the gastroesophageal junction, however, only two of these drugs (virtue and trastuzumab) has been approved for this use.
Usually used in conjunction with standard chemotherapy drugs, targeted drugs. Examinations to be held in your cancer cells this treatment your doctor will indicate whether it is likely to work for you.
Supportive (palliative) care
Palliative care is medical care focused Private to alleviate the symptoms of pain and other serious diseases. Palliative care specialists, complementary to your ongoing care, a separate support in order to provide you, your family, and work in conjunction with other physicians. Palliative care, surgery, while receiving aggressive treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy can be used.
When used in conjunction with all other appropriate treatments, palliative care, people with cancer themselves, they can feel better and live longer.
In palliative care doctors, nurses, and other health professionals, provided by a team of specially trained. Palliative care teams aim to increase the quality of life of people with cancer and their families. This type of care that you may receive a healing treatment, or along with other therapies, is presented.
Possible future treatments
Researchers throughout the world, to eradicate cancer immunotherapy called immune system are working on new drugs that harness the power of.